El alto costo de los alimentos se ha convertido en el villano de los hogares colombianos por su incidencia en el Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC), cuyo resultado de marzo fue divulgado este martes por el Gobierno y Los datos del Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (Dane) se traducen en unas cifras históricas de variación del IPC en Colombia, en el caso de la inflación anual superando en más de siete puntos porcentuales la anotada en el mismo período del año anterior.

La última cifra de inflación interanual registrada que se aproxima a este rotundo 8,53 data de 2016, cuanto se observó una inflación del 8,97 %.

Estas cifras, además, se prevé que mantengan esta tendencia al alza motivadas por la invasión de Rusia a Ucrania, lo que el Banco de la República ya adelantó que podría intensificar las presiones alcistas sobre los precios internacionales de algunos bienes e insumos agrícolas, la energía y el petróleo.

En esta línea, «esta presión inflacionaria en promedio durante los tres primeros meses del año corresponde a dos veces el promedio histórico de cada una de las variaciones mensuales del IPC», explicó el director del Dane, Juan Daniel Oviedo, en una rueda de prensa.

En el caso del primer trimestre de 2022, el dato de la inflación es tres veces superior al de los tres primeros meses de 2021, cuando se informó de una variación del 1,56 %, frente al 4,36 % anotado este año.

 

La inflación del 8,53 % en los últimos 12 meses ya está devorando el aumento del salario mínimo de 2022, que 10,07% en comparación con 2021.

 

Costo de los alimentos

 

Precisamente en los tres primeros meses del año la división de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas, con una variación del 10,22 %, así como la de restaurantes y hoteles, fueron las que explicaron el comportamiento inflacionario.

También los alimentos y las bebidas no alcohólicas fueron los que más aportaron al comportamiento del IPC en los 12 últimos meses, ya que registraron una variación anual del 25,37 %, una cifra elevada que vio cómo las papas, por ejemplo, subían de precio un 110,22 %.

No obstante, en una comparación entre los datos de febrero y de marzo se observa una disminución en la variación del IPC en el sector de los alimentos y las bebidas no alcohólicas, pasando del 3,26 % al 2,84 %.

La carne de cerdo o la zanahoria fueron algunos de los alimentos que registraron una inflación negativa y, por tanto, ayudaron a reducir la variación en este sector.

 

Frenar la inflación

Las presiones inflacionarias han llevado al gobierno de Iván Duque a definir el arancel 0 % a otros 39 insumos agropecuarios con el objetivo de reducir costos de producción y, por tanto, aliviar los bolsillos de los colombianos.

Esta decisión sigue a la adoptada el 3 de marzo que también decretó el 0 % de arancel a 165 bienes que se importan al país, e incluye una prórroga de seis meses para la rebaja del arancel 0 % a otros 36 productores entre ellos bulbos de cebollas, semillas de hortalizas para la siembra, abonos y herramientas, entre otros.

La medida estará en vigor durante 12 meses en estos productos catalogados como esenciales por la administración, entre los que se encuentran preparaciones utilizadas para la alimentación de los animales, semillas, abono, medicamentos con hormonas para uso veterinario e insecticidas, entre otros.

Por su parte, el Banco de la República anunció la semana pasada un aumento de 100 puntos básicos de la tasa de interés, que fue fijada en el 5,00 %, una decisión también motivada por las cifras de inflación que viene anotando el país.

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